June 13, 2012 Simon Raper

Graphing the history of philosophy

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A close up of ancient and medieval philosophy ending at Descartes and Leibniz

If you are interested in this data set you might like my latest post where I use it to make book recommendations.

This one came about because I was searching for a data set on horror films (don’t ask) and ended up with one describing the links between philosophers.

To cut a long story very short I’ve extracted the information in the influenced by section for every philosopher on Wikipedia and used it to construct a network which I’ve then visualised using gephi

It’s an easy process to repeat. It could be done for any area within Wikipedia where the information forms a network. I chose philosophy because firstly the influences section is very well maintained and secondly I know a little bit about it. At the bottom of this post I’ve described how I got there.

First I’ll show why I think it’s worked as a visualisation. Here’s the whole graph.

Each philosopher is a node in the network and the lines between them (or edges in the terminology of graph theory) represents lines of influence. The node and text are sized according to the number of connections (both in and out). The algorithm that visualises the graph also tends to put the better connected nodes in the centre of the diagram so we see the most influential philosophers, in large text, clustered in the centre. It all seems about right with the major figures in the western philosophical tradition taking the centre stage. (I need to also add the direction of influence with a arrow head – something I’ve not got round to yet.) A shortcoming however is that this evaluation only takes into account direct lines of influence. Indirect influence via another person in the network does not enter into it. This probably explains why Descartes is smaller than you’d think. It would also be better if the nodes were sized only by the number of outward connections although I think overall the differences would be slight. I’ll get round to that.

It gets more interesting when we use Gephi to identify communities (or modules) within the network. Roughly speaking it identifies groups of nodes which are more connected with each other than with nodes in other groups. Philosophy has many traditions and schools so a good test would be whether the algorithm picks them out.

It has been fairly successful. Below we can see the so called continental tradition picked out in green, stemming from Hegel and Nietzsche, leading into Heidegger and Sartre and ending in the isms of the twentieth century. It’s interesting that there is separate subgroup, in purple, influenced mainly by Schopenhauer (out of shot) and Freud.

The Continental Tradition

And this close up is of the analytical tradition emerging out of Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. At the top and to the left you can see the British empirical school and the American pragmatists.

British Empiricism, American Pragmatism and the Analytical Tradition

It would be interesting to play with the number of groups picked out by the algorithm. It would hopefully identify sub groups within these overarching traditions.

The graph is probably most insightful when you zoom in close. Gephi produces a vector graphic output so if you’re interested you can download it here and explore it yourself.

Now for how you do it.

The first stop is dbpedia. This is a fantastic resource which stores structured information extracted from wikepdia in a database that accessible through the web. Among other things it stores all of the information you see in an infobox on a Wikipedia page. For example I was after the influenced and influenced by fields that you find on the infobox on the page for Plato.

The next step is to extract this information. For this we need two things: a SPARQL endpoint (try snorql), which is an online interface to submit our queries and little knowledge of SPARQL a specialist language for querying the semantic web. This is a big (and exciting) area that has to do with querying information that is structured in triples (subject-relationship-object). I assume it has its roots in predicate logic so the analytical philosophers would have been pleased. However the downside is that the language itself a lot more difficult to learn than say SQL and to complicate things still further you need to know the ontological structure of the resource you are querying. I probably wouldn’t have got anywhere at all were it not for a great blog post by Bob DuCharme which is a simple guide for getting the information out of wikipedia.

In the end the query I needed was very simple. You can test it by submitting it in snorql.

?p a <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Philosopher> .
?p <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/influenced> ?influenced.

It then needed a bit of cleaning as the punctuation was coded for URLS. For this I used the following online URL decoder.

After a bit more simple manipulation in excel I had a finished csv file that consisted of three columns

Philosopher A
Philosopher B

Each row in the data set represented a line of influence from philosopher A to philosopher B. The weight column contained a dummy entry of 1 because in our graph we do not want any one link to matter more than any other.

Gephi is the tool I used to create the visualisation of the graph. It’s both fantastic and open source. You can download it and set it up in minutes. For a quick tutorial see this link. There are many settings you can use to change the way your graph looks. I used a combination of the force atlas and the fruchterman-reingold layout algorithms. I then scaled text and node size by node degree (number of connections) and suppressed all nodes with less than four connections (it was overwhelming otherwise). The partition tool is used to create the communities. Full instructions are in the tutorial. I also found this blog entry very useful as a guide.

I hope that helps anyone who is trying to do something similar. If anyone does has a data set on horror films tagged with keywords please let me know!


Update Griff at Griff’s graphs has used the instructions above to create a fantastic visualization of the influence network of everyone on Wikipedia. It’s well worth a look.

Creative Commons Licence
Graphing the history of philosophy by Simon Raper is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at drunksandlampposts.files.wordpress.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://drunks-and-lampposts.com/.

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About the Author

Simon Raper I am an RSS accredited statistician with over 15 years’ experience working in data mining and analytics and many more in coding and software development. My specialities include machine learning, time series forecasting, Bayesian modelling, market simulation and data visualisation. I am the founder of Coppelia an analytics startup that uses agile methods to bring machine learning and other cutting edge statistical techniques to businesses that are looking to extract value from their data. My current interests are in scalable machine learning (Mahout, spark, Hadoop), interactive visualisatons (D3 and similar) and applying the methods of agile software development to analytics. I have worked for Channel 4, Mindshare, News International, Credit Suisse and AOL. I am co-author with Mark Bulling of Drunks and Lampposts - a blog on computational statistics, machine learning, data visualisation, R, python and cloud computing. It has had over 310 K visits and appeared in the online editions of The New York Times and The New Yorker. I am a regular speaker at conferences and events.

Comments (277)

  1. Francisco

    amazing graph! interesting to see how this algorithm gets the categorization fairly correct by merely extrapolating the influences.
    could you upload the vector image somewhere or drop me an email? that’d be great. thanks!

    • Hi Francisco. Glad you like it. Unfortunately I haven’t found a way of uploading the svg to wordpress. If you put your email address in a follow up comment I’ll mail it to you (and I won’t approve the comment so no-one will see your email)


      • Would love a copy of this as big as possible for printing and hangs in my philosophy classroom. The grouping is particularly fascinating and I would love to see what subsets can be picked out.

      • Al

        I’d love a copy of this please! I’m a philosopher at University of Birmingham.

      • Chen

        Hi there,

        I study philosophy in Berlin. I’m very interested in the amazing picture you’ve made. Could you please also send it to me? Thank you very much!

        My email ist xxxxxxx

        Best Regards


      • Casey Haskins

        Hi Simon–Might I have one too? (For my office–my philosophy majors will love it. I can pay if that helps. ) If you can enlist the expertise of someone who’s good at computers and graphic displays I am certain you’ll have a very marketable item , given how rapidly network-representations are moving into our folk conceptions of everything. (Also on my office wall is a pre-algorithmic-era poster which portrays the networked links among major American jazz musicians.)
        Also, are you aware of Randall Collins’ book The Sociology of Philosophies? It’s a fascinating and ambitious, if incomplete, attempt to reconstruct some main evolving intellectual networks in various world philosophy traditions since ancient times. The programs you’re experimenting with now are in effect complements to Collins’ argument.
        Good luck with this project.

        • Hi Casey,

          No problem. Will email it to you. There is also now a link on the blog that takes you to the SVG should anyone else need it. Love the idea that it will be on the wall!

          I also looked at musicians but at first glance at least the info on Wikipedia was not as complete. But it’s worth another look I agree.

          No I hadn’t seen that book but will take a look. Sounds very interesting.



      • Nicolas mattingley

        If you could shoot me that as well, I’d really appreciate it 🙂


      • John Gulino

        I’d LOVE to receive this graph in an email, Simon. Fascinating concept, you took the philosophers and made it into a visual! Ingenious and clever! (is that redundant?)

      • ywcg

        Simon, being a phil student, I’d love to have this graph too. Thanks so much!

      • David Schwartz

        Dear Professor Raper,

        My name is David Schwartz, and I teach philosophy at Randolph College. I’m very intrigued by your visual depiction of philosophical influences. Might it be possible to get a copy of the file so that I can print it out? I’d love to put it up outside my office for students (and others) to peruse. It’s very engaging.

        Thanks very much!

      • Dear Simon,

        wonderful work!! I am so amazed that I would be thankfiul if you could send me theoriginal vector image file… can you make it available? I would love to print it out for my office.
        Thanks, Thomas

      • Hi Simon, really great graph, and I’ve seen dozens of it, I’m one of the founder of the french RTGI team who created Gephi in 2005. After that we created the company linkfluence that is doing social media monitoring & research and creating a lot of web maps (you can see public projects here : http://us.linkfluence.net/insights-2-0/atlas/ ). The last version of our “map player” was until begining of august at the exposition “Multiversités Créatives” in Centre Pompidou, Beaubourg.

        I’d love to have an access to the gdf file so we could test it and try to produce an interactive map with. Sounds possible ? Of course, we won’t publish anything without your agreement.


      • Hi Simon. I love you work. I’m traing to create an group of thinkers unwilling to be mentors of young people. More than that, we are preparing a new tipe of learning and teaching, to contribute for a sucess of young people. Can I use your graphic in my site. I put on an link to you work. Sorry for my English.

        Maria José Barbosa

      • Sam F

        Hi, I’d love if you could email me a svg if you wouldn’t mind sending it along. This graph is fascinating and it seems like it would be an interesting point of reference.


    • The commom denominator of all secular philosophy is summed up by the pre- Socratic philosopher Protagoras, ” Homo Mensura”, i.e. man is the measure. The idea behind the motto is that man is the measure of all things; mankind itself is the ultimate norm by which values are to be determined. Therefore man is the ultimate being and man is the ultimate authority, making the system, in technical terms “Anthropocentric”. This term is a simple compound word stemming from “anthropos” (“man”, or “mankind”) and “-centric” referring to a centrality of focus. One can immediately see the built in tension between this and other philosophical systems which are termed “Theocentric”, having the view that God is the Ultimate Being, and which would derive its values from the ultimate authority and character of God.

      “Man’s walled mind has no access to a ladder upon which he can, on his own strength, rise to knowledge of God.”
      —Abraham Heschel, God in Search of Man, p. 138

      The epithelium of modern secularism has erected a wall, a boundary of the present moment that has encircled the individual in a prison of the “now.” Twenty-First Century cosmopolitan man and woman live in a calendar prison as constricting and oppressive as the walls and bars that enclose the inmate of any maximum security prison. With each passing hour the reduction of life grows more pronounced and controlling. An ennui of spirit, soul and mind is the resultant consequence of time’s illusory nature. It may promise, but can never fulfill. For the meaning of time is not inherent within its continuum. The feeling of satisfaction that briefly caresses the soul is but a momentary delusion. “And all that my eyes desired I did not refuse them. I did not withhold my heart from any pleasure, for my heart was pleased because of all my labor and this was my reward for all my labor. Thus I considered all my activities which my hands had done and the labor which I had exerted, and behold all was vanity and striving after wind and there was no profit under the sun.” (Ecclesiastes 2:10-11). Having rejected any meaning or reality that might lie outside the constricted moment, man has become time’s prisoner. Within this enslavement time has inflicted man with a disease from which there is no antidote. Secularism is left without hope, living from microsecond to microsecond repressing time’s ultimate dominance, death. “Eater of all things lovely—Time! Upon whose watering lips the world poises a moment (futile, proud, a costly morsel of sweet tears) gesticulates and disappears.” (E. E. Cummings, Puella Mea, p. 20).

      “A person would have to suffer from otosclerosis-the most common cause of deafness-not to hear a familiar cry that life has become a meaningless, purposeless, obsurd, vile, intolerable. All around us we are assailed by voices full of self-pity, almost despair over the torment of having to be alive and to carry on in the world as it is today.” (Mortimer Adler, article “Concerning God, Modern Man and Religion” from the Adler Archive).

      We are witnessing the threnody of a dead philosophy. Secularism, with all its permutations; pragmatism, empiricism, atheism, humanism, are all in a decompositional state. No answer but one can be given to the centuries’ old question that lays bare the philosophies of man, “For what will a man be profited, if he gains the whole world, and forfeits his soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?” (Matt. 16:26). Nothing profits a man, only loss, eternal loss. May the sound we hear be the regenerative voice that pierces through the detritus of a dying age and liberates us to breath the breathe of eternity. May we be awakened from the stupor of a deadening somnambulance. “A sense of contact with the ultimate dawns upon most people when their self-reliance is swept away by violent misery.” (Abraham Heschel, The Philosophy of Judaism, p. 422).

      • Iuppiter maximus optimusque

        Modern secularism is in fact a variant of Christianity and shares its basic beliefs, and has little to do with Protagoras.

  2. Alexander Fick

    Dear Simon,

    I’d be very grateful if you’d send the file to the following address (which is my own): xxxxxxxxxx
    Thank you very much in advance – and great work!

    – Alex

    ps: The fact the Weininger shows up at the fringe of the analytic tradition is funny; must be Wittgenstein’s eclectic and weird taste. 😉

  3. Steve Rothman

    I feel bad asking but I’d love a copy of the vector file as well.

    If you send it to me I’ll endeavor to find a public space to post it and then I’ll list the URL here, is it a deal? Or would you rather restrict distribution?

    • No problem Steve. We’re just tidying up the output then we’ll send it out on Monday. We’ll also host it somewhere permanently so no need to worry about posting it.



  4. Jennifer Clarke

    Love a copy to print up for my brother the philo prof!
    Cheers, Jennifer

  5. Juliano

    Hi Simon. I´m a researcher from southern Brasil. Just like Francisco, Mitch and Christopher, I would be very thankful if I could have a copy of the original vector image file… can you make it available?

  6. Justin

    Really amazing work! I was wondering if you could send the svg image to xxxxxxxx. Thank you very much!

  7. MENG Tong

    Funny but problematic. “A shortcoming however is that this evaluation only takes into account direct lines of influence.” No. The shortcoming is the reversal of the sequence of influence. The more influential philosopher is the latter one who redefines the former one. See: Michael Baxandall. Patterns of intention: on the historical explanation of pictures. Yale University Press, 1985. Or, [英]M•巴克森德尔.意图的模式.曹意强,严军,严善錞.杭州:中国美术学院出版社,1997. 69-74.

  8. Hello. We are starting up a web page for teachers of philosophy in sweden, and would like to show the fantastic work you’ve done! Can you send the svg image to *********? Thank you veeery much!


  9. Cameron Need

    That is brilliant work. I would love for you to send the svg my way too if that’s OK. Thanks.

  10. Nick

    You should turn this into a poster. This would look wonderful on a lot of walls.

  11. Octaviano Aurelio

    Ciao Simon, nice work!
    Would you mind sending me a copy of the svg? Thanks.

  12. John Haydn Gurmin

    I too would love a copy of the svg – -************ – this is fantastic. I also look forward to its permanent hosting link.

  13. Tiehcheng

    Great work. I’m really curious about what it would look like admitting a sort of “transitivity”, namely if Hume is influenced by Aristotle, and Aristotle by Plato, then Hume by Plato etc.

  14. Ian

    You should sell posters of these graphs, pretty sure you’d be able to turn a profit. I’d buy one, anyway.

  15. Gdizzle

    Hi, Great work! I just wanted to check – does the code you provide actually work upon copy and past into SPARQL? I get the following error:

    Virtuoso 37000 Error SP030: SPARQL compiler, line 16: syntax error at ‘<' before 'http:' SPARQL query: define sql:big-data-const 0 #output-format:application/sparql-results+json define input:default-graph-uri PREFIX owl: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX rdf: PREFIX foaf: PREFIX dc: PREFIX : PREFIX dbpedia2: PREFIX dbpedia: PREFIX skos: SELECT * WHERE { ?p a . ?p ?influenced. }

    • Thanks for pointing that out. I’d accidentally put a space between philosopher and the > sign. Fixed it now and it works.

      • Thanks for your help. I wanted to pull out the doctoral advisors of say all mathematicians. It seems like a carbon copy almost.
        SELECT *
        WHERE {
        ?p a
        ?p ?doctoralAdvisor.

        Doesn’t seem to work.

        Any ideas?

  16. Ralph Scallion

    Thank you for creating and sharing the inspiring graphic. Please snd the svg file. I will post it in the rooms where I meet with patients to stimulate and encourage them to examine their personal philosphies. Hopefully, this will help motivate them to adopt a therapeutic lifestyle. We’ll see.
    Ralph Scallion, MD, EE cardiologist

  17. Clare O'Farrell

    Reblogged this on Foucault News and commented:
    If you have a look at the third graph here labelled ‘the continental tradition’ you can see Foucault’s ‘sphere of influence’ (at least according to the data entered here)

  18. Thanks for sharing. This is so cool! I was just in the process of creating a timeline of philosophers for an Intro to Philosophy course that I teach, now we can also display the connections for class. Thanks again.

  19. Linda Khandro

    Fantastic work! Could someone in this community do something the same for the history (ies) of science? Which would/could be huge, so how about history of the physical sciences (chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, etc)?

    And Simon, I would very much like a copy of the file to print and post, thank you!

    Linda Khandro (earth/space science college instructor)

  20. Glen Clark

    Love this graph – I only wish there was a search feature. It took me awhile to find Meher Baba, and I still don’t see Gurdjieff or Ouspensky (maybe they didn’t make the cut)

  21. A few, hopefully, friendly criticisms and suggestions:

    1. You have a bunch of nodes in the graph that are not philosophers by any stretch of the imagination (because they are schools or movements or groups): Scholasticism, Pre-Socratic Philosophy, Neoplatonism, Frankfurt School, Vienna Circle, Western Philosophy, and the Bible. These should be eliminated from your graph.

    2. Some of the nodes in the graph are only marginally philosophers or would be controversial to count as philosophers. For example, Shakespeare, Newton, Darwin, Goethe, Rothbard, Geisler, Zacharias, Rand, and de Tocqueville (just to name a few).

    3. Some of the philosophers in your graph are over-valued because they influenced people who are probably not best thought of as philosophers. Nietzsche is the one that jumps out at me the most in this respect.

    4. Some of the philosophers in your graph are under-valued because they influenced too many people for the Wiki to include them all. That seems to be what happened with Descartes. If you look at his Wiki, under “Influenced,” you find: “Most philosophers after including:” and then a small (very strange) list.

    5. Some of the philosophers in your graph must be there in virtue of the Wikis of other philosophers, since they don’t actually have an “Influenced” / “Influenced by” section. Charles Peirce is one such example.

    6. It would be very useful for the reader to know how the size of each node relates to the influence of the node. If you gave a key in the corner of the graph like maps sometimes have for city size, that would be very nice.

    7. It would be nice if the line sizes matched the node size that the line was going to. That way, one could easily evaluate whether some philosopher had an influence on very important philosophers or only on very minor philosophers.

    As an aside, I would love to play around with this stuff, but I have no idea how to pull the data from Wikipedia. Would you mind sharing your data or better yet, teaching me how to get my own?

    • Mark

      One further comment (also friendly – this is a wonderful graph): it seems like the data you’ve picked up doesn’t quite match what’s actually there on Wikipedia. I happened to glance at G.E.M. Anscombe on the graph, and noticed that she wasn’t connected to Wittgenstein, which struck me as odd, since he was her teacher and she was his most notable translator. Looking at Anscombe’s Wikipedia page, I saw that Wittgenstein WAS listed as an influence on her, as well as a number of other influences (in both directions) not represented on the graph. Not sure how this came about, but thought it was worth noting.

      • Hi Mark,

        I also noticed some discrepancies between the data I pulled and wikipedia. I don’t know how often dbpedia is refreshed from wikipedia but perhaps that is the reason. Also as you point out the influenced /influenced by data is not always consistent. To get round that I pulled in both the influenced and the influence by data, inverted the second and then deduped to get a fuller data set. One last point is that in order to make the graphic readable at all I suppressed any nodes with three or less connections (otherwise it was crazily big) so if you are looking for someone and can’t find them that may be the reason why.



    • dcsvelan

      Thanks for your analysis.
      Nice idea. But doesn’t reveal much.
      I think what happened to Descartes is also happened to Plato. Plato is footnotes ….

    • eric lewis

      Yes, perhaps the most obvious oddity (upon only a quick glance) is Rothbard, who comes out as one of the most influential philosophers ever…..and I have never heard of him (and I am a senior professor of Philosophy). This is not a problem with the graph, it is a problem with Wiki!

  22. Aloha, Simon. I just showed this to my husband (saw via Metafilter) and we both think you should turn this wonderful work into a poster and sell it.
    We would love to buy one and hang it on the wall to ponder.
    And inspire further reading.
    Warmest wishes from Maui.
    Mary and Chet Zoll

  23. Eric

    This is really awesome, although it’s too bad there isn’t a better source for the data than the caprice of whatever someone decided to put in the “influenced by” box on Wikipedia.

    • ptm

      This is great, Simon.
      I would love to have the data for exploration too, if you do not mind.

  24. Kerby

    Simon – I’d sure like to have a copy of the image as well, if you have time amidst all the other requests. Great work, and thanks for sharing it. Stimulates a number of different streams of thought!

    Kerby – [email protected]

  25. Greg Hutchinson

    A lovely graph. I’d appreciate a copy for my office. Of course, I’ll be happy to pay for the graph and the expense of sending it. I can send relevant information from my email address, if you contact me at it.

  26. John Sfinias

    Amazing work and a great result. As some users above have noted, I would love a search feature in that or even better a way of picking a philosopher (node) and the graphic to focus on that. I am talking about some interaction in the graphic. I have seen it done but i do not know if it would be possible to do here, one would probably have to export the data to a different programme.
    on a closing note, I would also appreciate greatly if I could have the graphic on a larger scale so that I can find my favourite philosophers and see how they fair. I also find this graph very helpful as a visual guide for further reading, like the bibliography at the back of a book, only here you can take whichever path you like straight from the original sources.
    Great work man!!!!

    • Hi John

      Thanks. With regard to your last point you should be able to download the svg by clicking on the link in the post. If that doesn’t work let me know and i’ll mail it to you. Also if you use something like inkscape (freeware) to edit the svg you should be able to search it too. But we are working in something more interactive.



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  29. Félix Delval

    Hello Simon,

    How funny! This was actually my mini project that was planned for today. I didn’t discover yours before actually being done making a Wikipedia scraper. I would have certainly be much faster with dbpedia.

    I had exactly the same idea, except that I also took interest in the “influenced by” criteria. It seems that more than 95% of those links are not going both way, so it gives a different weight to many philosophers, but it does not change the main results.

    To cotinue with the idea, I am also working on the little webapp, that will let people add and edit philosophers. The graph view will be done in the browser through sigma.js.


  30. Simon, Very cool work. Can you email me a copy of the image as well? I’m at xxxxxxxxxx. I’ve played with Gephi a little myself and have done similar things on a smaller scale using the Personal Brain software (i.e. pulling in parent-child relationships in Excel, manipulating the data with Matlab, and then importing into the Brain. For instance I’ve made a map of who reblogged what from whom in Tumblr. I never thought about using Wiki as a source of data. That is very cool and I’m going to check out the dbpedia.

  31. Curt Ries

    I just spent about 15 minutes looking for John Rawls, arguably the most influential political philosopher of the 20th century, and could not find him. An oversight? Or am I missing him?

  32. Hi, You’ve inspired me to make my own graphs. I made a website with a few of my first attempts. http://griffsgraphs.wordpress.com

    One question though, if you have a file with two columns to be imported as a csv file into Gephi like:

    FirstName1 Last Name1, FirstName2 LastName2

    It makes one node for every name unfortunately. The only work around is to put a hyphen in the name:
    FirstName1-Last Name1, FirstName2-LastName2

    I’ve tried deleting all of the data in the data laboratory then importing the csv file again but this only creates the nodes and doesn’t connect any of them.

    If you did make it like you said,

    Philosopher A
    Philosopher B,

    How did it create ones like Karl Marx because mine creates two nodes? Any help anyone!? Thanks.

  33. Mercedes F. Duran

    Please, please, could I have one as well? I know this must be a pain for you but what you have created is amazing and I would love to show it to my students. I teach philosophy (cultural studies etc) at the University of British Columbia in Canada! Many thanks, mercedes

  34. Interesting work. It might a great idea to use the info you substracted from wikipedia to check against the datasets offered by the indiana philosophy ontology project. https://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/docs/ The api offers some nice data options ( e.g. also influenced by, influences, ..) based the stanford encyclopedia on philosophy.

  35. This is fantastic! Thanks so much for sharing both the visualisation and how to repeat the process. I can see I’ll be spending many hours of fun and learning exploring this

  36. Dario

    This is completely crazy 🙂

    a good game for someone who knows of philosophy as much as I know of physics

  37. Amazing! Can someone please tell me where Saul Kripke is located? I’ve been staring at the Quine/Davidson area for a while.

  38. tvastar

    Amazing! Can someone please tell me where Saul Kripke is located? I’ve been staring at the Frege/Davidson section for a while!

    • Hi there,

      Ive looked into this as he’s not the only notable figure missing. The influenced section in wikipedia is populated ok but there seems to be a problem with the transfer of this info into dbpedia. I’ll raise it with them and hopefully we’ll get a refresh.


  39. hromadka michal

    Hi! Great work… I`d be glad if you could send me the svg too
    my mail is thx !!!!

  40. hromadka michal

    DIRK PISTON: hi ..on dropbox you have only V2 i need V4..pls fix it thx

  41. Thanks for this. In spite of all of the criticisms, this is really just fun to look at and argue about.

    That being said, besides Augustine and Descartes, I also would have expected Hobbes, Rousseau, and Origen to have larger footprints.

  42. Tatiana

    Wooow! It’s fantastic! I want a copy for my office too. Can you send me the file you’ve been sending to the others, please? Thank you so much from Colombia. 😀

    • Fabio

      Hi! Mind-blowing graphic.
      Taking the opportunity to ask, also from South America (Brazil), a file to get a big copy as well, to print and pin. I’m a philosophy undergraduated preparing for graduation studies.

  43. Kevin Haskell

    If this were about ‘influence’ on the world, one would think two circles would be massive, but don’t even show up. The first would be Adam Smith, who set the tone for the Capitalist world for the past several hundred years, and Ayn Rand, who has sold more books since the 1940s, and is more well known, than just about any combination of philosophers listed in this graph. (We’ll throw Thomas Hobbes and Milton Friedman in for good measure.)

    Now if this list is just how philosophers have influenced each other, and not how philosophers have influenced the rest of humanity for the past 5000 years, then this would perhaps make a little (very little) sense. Seems to be a pattern of some sort. Wonder what it could be? Maybe I missed the names. I’ll break out my magnifying glass.

    • Iuppiter maximus optimusque

      Ayn Rand has no influence outside of the United States.

      • Kevin Haskell

        Spare me. Her book has now been published around the world in dozens of languages and sales are climbing. Her influence came first in the United States because that is where it was first put into mass publication. Secondly, to say that a philosophy ‘only influenced’ the nation that is central to the world’s culture, economy, and power structure with the wave of the hand as if that didn’t matter is simply jaw-dropping.

  44. Stefan

    What seems to be missing in this, otherwise wonderful, graph is philosophy from asian countries… like Buddhist Philosophy. This goes way back and has a lot of interesting and influencial philosophers/schools of thought.

  45. jama

    so basically you guys took something as abstract as philosophy and influences and turned it to something quantifiable. i don’t see a reason really

  46. Aleks

    I’d love to have a wall print of this in my room. I hate to bother, but can I get the SVG file as well? If so, please send it to

    Thanks for this amazing graph!

  47. Don

    Excellent, but could you please explain your colour scheme? Green = ?, Blue = ?, …
    I can guess but I’d rather the definitive key.
    Thank you.

  48. Kavi

    I would love the svg of this, if there’s a link on the blog I can’t seem to find it (blind). I have a public e-mail address in my gravatar profile.

  49. Very excellent work. HOWEVER, and that really is a big “however” because 98% of the world’s population is either nuts or doesn’t give a damn about “what the hell does it all mean?” It means nothing because philosophy resides only in the mind of the philosopher. The rest of us labor quite hard to understand what the philosopher is saying even when he says it as plainly as he can (Ref: Heidegger). So it is all lost on those few who understand it and are so brilliant that they committ hari-kari on their own bodies because they do understand it and can not face it. Signed; one of Kierkegaards every-day-men.

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  51. Is there somewhere I could get the dataset you used (i.e. the csv file?) I’d like to do some Network Analysis on it, but it’d be nice not to reproduce it myself.

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  53. Dale

    Datasets for horror: could you use imdb.com?

    Start from their horror genre search: http://www.imdb.com/search/title?genres=horror&title_type=feature&sort=moviemeter,asc

    Get the titleid, and check it’s plot keywords (for example, Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1611224/keywords )

    I don’t know how easy it will be to navigate imdb’s website with these semantic tools, and you’ll probably have to pay for “pro” access to not trip their bot-detector. But I think they have the data you want.

  54. Alex

    I have trying to figure out how to use SPARQL to give me a list of psychologists and their doctoral advisors but I have having trouble. This is what I have so far:

    SELECT *
    WHERE {
    ?p a
    ?p ?field.
    ?p ?doctoralAdvisor .

    I tried using Psychologist in place of Scientist (where Philosopher was in the example) and it comes up with nothing. Right now it is giving me all scientists rather than just psychologists. How would I specify that I only want to find the doctoral advisors of psychologists?
    Any help would be appreciated.

      • Alex

        Bob’s blog post was helpful but now I am coming across a different problem.

        When I enter:

        SELECT *
        WHERE {
        ? subject
        ?subject ?doctoralAdvisor.

        (Hopefully the coding appears now unlike my last post)

        I get only one subject’s doctoral advisor. I am not sure what I am doing wrong.

  55. It might be useful to compare some of these findings with those coming of out of Colin Allen’s Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO).

  56. Sayan

    I have created a similar csv file. But how do you import it into the graphing software?

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  59. Alfonso Salgado

    Dear Simon,

    The data is mainly from the English-written bios, isn’t it?
    If that is the case, I think it could be useful to mix the data you already have with wikipedia’s databases in other important languages in the philosophical tradition, such as German and French. Maybe this could help grasp the influence of some philosphers that other commentors have been missing and give us an idea of the overall influence of the philosophers already included in the graph. Similarly, to make it more encompassing, you could also see if it is possibly to include the database sources of wikipedia in Chinese, Hindi, etc., to therefore assess more sharply the weight of non-Western traditions in the overall picture.
    I got the idea from one of the graphs of another commentator, inspired by yours’; his’ is a graph on soccer that overemphasizes the influence of British players vis-a-vis Italians, Spaniards, Germans, and, more strikingly, all Latin American soccer players (surprise, only the ones playing in GB are well represented). I feared something similar might be happening with your graph, though obviously in a smaller scale.

    Best regards,

  60. This is amazing! I hope you update with the directed graph version and organize it not by centrality but by time: influencers being placed to the right of the influencie. That would be a great resource to go along with books like Russell’s History of Western Philosophy.

  61. Andreas Anex

    Hi, very interesting to me

    Im study Philosophy in Indonesia, Could you please send it to me?

    My email ist xxxxxxx

    Thank u very much
    Best Regards

    Andreas Anex

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  63. Great visualization! I found it pretty interesting that there are only 3 philosophers whose thoughts were completely unrelated to any others in Roerich, Starostin, and Baba. I hadn’t heard of either of them (I confess that I don’t really study a lot of philosophy), but I am very interested in checking out their works.

  64. This is amazing! I hope you update with the directed graph version and organize it not by centrality but by time: influencers being placed to the right of the influence. That would be a great resource to go along with books like Russell’s History of Western Philosophy.

  65. charlene

    Hi~it’s a brilliant work,would you mind send this picture to my email(my major is philosophy,this may help me a lot,could I print it?)~Thank u! My email adress is:[email protected]

  66. Earl Rose

    Is Alfred Jarry on here? I see James Joyce, & Beckett, Deleuze, Baudrillard, & many others who were influenced by his philosophy.

  67. Giovanni Gaeta

    Figure doesn’t contains one of the greatest philosophers and psychologists of twentieth century: B. F. Skinner.

  68. Hello Simon. I came across your post through a mention in class, since I’m currently doing Philosophy studies. Congratulations for this fantastic and useful job. Also, this post and its respective ‘infographic’ are already archived in my notes for future study references. Greetings from Brazil

  69. social_interest

    If I replace Philosopher by Sociologist it does not work any more. Does you querry only work if ther is a wikipedia page with this title. Sociologist is directly linked to Sociology! Do you any possibility to circumvent this problem?

  70. Wonderful, very informative post. I used the ideas presented here to pull data from Wikipedia and perform some light analysis of musicians’ influence on one another with some interesting results. Thank you for sharing!

  71. Thomas

    How come three philosophers in the graph have no lines connecting them with other philosophers? Does it mean that no one were affected by them, and that they affected no one? 🙂

  72. It seems as though the link to the vector file is no longer valid. Is there anyway to still get a copy of it?


  73. Andre

    Hi Simon,
    This is simply amazing. I think it can show us how complex relationships of influence are, and invites us to a deep reflection. You obviously can’t show every line of influence and philosopher, since there are far too many of both. But I really believe you should have gone deeper on Eastern philosophy, especially Indian and Chinese (that part is pretty blank). Among the first philosophers were Hindus and Buddha, who influenced greek philosophers such as Zeno of Citium and Pyrrho. The Chinese were probably the most advanced society in regards to technology until the seventeenth century. They can’t have possibly achieved that with only Confucius and a handful of other philosophers and thinkers. My suggestion is to add Buddha and Laozi (if you did and I didn’t see Them, then I apologize). Since you added Mohammad, I don’t think there will be much of a debate on whether figures associated with religion should be added or not. It’s surprising how many philosophers They have influenced.
    Cheers, thank you for your work and attention.

  74. Nemo

    It’s an interesting exercise but I would like to point out it is inherently biased from using the English wikipedia data set, which obviously gives priority to the anglophones, their countries and their worldviews. It’s inaccessible to edit for non-english-speaking people and not a priority for people with not-english as a mother tongue.

    For example such would amplify the associations of english-speaking, western culture authors and underplay or omit entirely those comparable who are not.

    A more accurate representation of influences and connections would be a meta-analysis of the wikipedia links in the Wikipedias of every different language and factoring the size of the native populations of those languages.

  75. Hi Simon, I am creating a website about the history of philosophy for my History Day project and I would like to use this image on it. I attempted to create a graph of my own, while narrowing down the philosophers but I just couldn’t get it to work. I would appreciate you letting me use the image.

    -Cole Walsh

  76. Factvince

    Might just be me but I see no link between Heidegger and Derrida on the graph. Quite strange isn’t it?

  77. Anastasia

    Hi from Greece. I just found your work. It’s great. I teach philosophy at a general secondary school. Could you please send me the file so as I can print the graph? Thank you

    • Simon Raper

      Hi Anastasia

      If you click on the image of the whole graph in the centre of the article it will open a high resolution image which if you right click on you should be able to save. Hope that helps



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